Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Essential Theory


National Information Standards Organization.  Understanding Metadata. 2004

PREMIS [Preservation Metadata:  Implementation Strategies] Editorial Committee.  PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata.  Version 2.1.  January 2011.

Open Archival Information System Reference Model

Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.  Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System.  CCSDS 650.0-B-1/ISO 14721:2003.  January 2002.

The Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model provides the theoretical underpinnings of most electronic records and digital preservation projects and programs today, and anyone who works with electronic records should be familiar with it.  However, it won't tell you how to build real-world, OAIS-compliant systems or how to determine whether a given real-world system is indeed OAIS-compliant.  Moreover, the committee that developed the OAIS Reference Model went out of its way to avoid leaving the impression that the interests -- or terminology -- of any one stakeholder group were being privileged.  As a result, the prose is sometimes stilted and archivists may find some of the terms (e.g., "ingest" is used to discuss the process archivists typically call "accessioning") off-putting.

LaVoie, Brian F.  The Open Archival Information System Reference Model:  Introductory Guide.  Digital Preservation Coalition Technology Watch Series 04-01.  January 2004.
If you're new to the Open Archival Information System Reference Model, start here:  LaVoie's overview is straightforward, concise, and covers all of the essentials in considerable detail.

Trusted Digital Repositories

OCLC and Research Libraries Group.  Trusted Digital Repositories:  Attributes and Responsibilities.  May 2002.

An influential theoretical work that identifies the core characteristics of sustainable digital cultural heritage repositories.

OCLC and Center for Research Libraries. Trusted Repositories Audit and Certification: Criteria and Checklist. Version 1.0. July 2007.

A detailed checklist that enables cultural heritage institutions to assess the extent to which their organizational infrastructure, digital object management policies and procedures, and technological and security infrastructures conform to the Trusted Digital Repository model and lays the foundation for third-party certification of Trusted Digital Repository status.

General Reference

PC Magazine Encyclopedia.

Richard Pearce-Moses.  A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology.  Society of American Archivists.

Monday, April 22, 2013

Program Outlines

Tufts University.  Digital Collections and Archives.  About Us. n.d.

University of Wisconsin - River Falls. University Archives and Area Research Center.  Management of Electronic/Digital Records. n.d.

Sunday, April 21, 2013

Preservation Policies

Florida Digital Archives.  FDA File Preservation Strategies by Format.

Chris Prom.  "6. Develop Preservation/Action Plans." Practical E-Records blog. n.d.

National Archives [United Kingdom].  Selecting File Formats for Long-Term Preservation.  Digital Preservation Guidance Note 1.  August 2008.

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Friday, April 19, 2013

Technical Infrastructure


 Chris Prom.  "Do It Yourself Repository." Practical E-Records blog, n.d.

Open Source Processing Tools

Developed by Duke University electronic records archivist Seth Shaw.  Simple, Java-based tool that provides an "an easy way of migrating [archival] data off disks and onto a file server [or other storage resource] for basic preservation, further appraisal, arrangement, & description." Automatically creates checksums for each file and can easily be configured to create very basic PREMIS preservation metadata.  Documentation was written with Duke University staff in mind, but can easily be adapted to other contexts.

Developed by the National Library of New Zealand and commonly referred to as the New Zealand Metadata Extractor or NZME (niz-me).  Extracts preservation metadata from PDF documents, image files, sound files, Microsoft Office documents, and other files.  Good documentation.

Open Source Digital Preservation Systems

The only fully functional open source digital preservation system suitable for smaller institutions.  Will convert records in proprietary formats to open formats, but does not give you the option to alter or override its conversion pathways. Scalable and can be run on a single desktop or on a cluster of Linux servers.  OAIS-based.  Still in alpha testing.  

Users of the Linux server version of Archivematica can either maintain their own systems or contract with Archivematica's developer, Artefactual Systems, to set up their Archivematica servers and provide ongoing user support.

"An open source, peer-to-peer, decentralized digital preservation infrastructure" originally developed to preserve electronic serials.  Does not support file migration/conversion but can be used to preserve records that have already undergone migration/conversion.  Has a wide following in the library community, and is the core technology used by the MetaArchive.  Most LOCKSS users are still focused on serials, but a number of archives are experimenting with it as well.  Requires a Linux server environment and multiple servers (may be geographically dispersed or held by different institutions).  LOCKSS is OAIS-based and open source, but membership in the LOCKSS Alliance enables users to shape the ongoing development of LOCKSS and to obtain technical support.

Digital Preservation Service Providers

Open Source Antivirus Software

Software that Supports Other Tools


If you want to use the Duke Data Accessioner, you'll need to have Java installed.  Some computers have Java preinstalled, but you may need to download and install it yourself.  Doing so takes less than five minutes.  (As discussed during the workshop, as of April 2013 Java has a number of known security flaws.  If you install Java, be sure to keep your anti-virus software up-to-date and to update Java as needed.  You may also want to disable Java when you're not using the Duke Data Accessioner; this slideshow provides step-by-step instructions for Windows and Mac users.)

Oracle Virtual Box

If you want to use Archivematica on a Windows or Mac computer, you'll need to use this software to create a "virtual machine" environment that runs Ubuntu Linux.  (If your computer uses the Ubuntu operating system, you don't need Virtual Box).

Ubuntu Linux

If you want to use Archivematica on a Windows or Mac computer, you'll need to download and install Virtual Box and then download and install the Ubuntu operating system (follow the detailed instructions on the Archivematica website).

 Web Capture Tools

Internet Archive's Heritrix-based subscription service.

Open source crawler for large-scale archival capture.  Requires Linux environment and extensive custom programming.

Open source crawler suitable for capturing smaller sites.

OCLC's Heritrix-based subscription service. Requires use of CONTENTdm.

Open source, can be used to identify and capture series based on analysis of a site's file directory structure.

Other Helpful Resources

Library of Congress. National Digital Information Infrastructure Preservation Program.  NDIIPP Partner Tools and Services Inventory

A comprehensive listing of digital preservation tools and services used or developed by cultural heritage institutions, film and recording industry organizations, state government libraries and archives, and other recipients of NDIIPP grant funds.  Every tool or service listed has been tested and used in real-world situations.

Thursday, April 18, 2013


Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access.  Sustainable Economics for a Digital Planet:  Ensuring Long-Term Access to Digital Information.  February 2010.

This publication is aimed at administrators, funders, and policymakers.  In other words, this is not a practical guide to finding funding; however, it may help you make your case for getting the resources you need.